Secrets and conspiracies seem to be instinctive in man. Even little children delight in them. They pervade our lives from the highest to the lowest of human institutions and activities. They commingle as the cells in the life blood of The Beast who alienates us from one another. From the ancient mountain-top Druid sacred oak-grove nemetons, over great expanses of time and space, to the ultra-modern cathedrals of the capitals of Switzerland's most revered high places, with chapels of the cult in all the populated places of the world, the pearls of the wisdom of wealth are protected from the swine of the Earth by rules that exclude the ignorant from all but exploitation.
It is hard to imagine how as diverse a group of powerful intellects as those of Thomas Thoroughgood, Lord Kingsborough and James Adair arrived at a common thesis on the Jewish origin of the Native American, without there being historical suggestion of it. Such suggestion is found in the book Anglia Judaica: or the History and Antiquities of the Jews in England, by D'Blossiers Tovey, first published in 1738, now available in a "translation" of the English of that period by Elizabeth Pearl, published by Weidenfeld and Nicolson, in London, 1990.
Traditions say that Joseph of Arimithea established the first Christian church at Glastonbury, within a generation after Christ's crucifixion, death, resurrection and ascension. Other Jews doubtlessly lived in Roman England, practicing their faith. Many Jews came into England with William the Conqueror in 1066, according to records and traditions.
Certainly the business of equating all wealth to gold, for accounting and tax purposes, was a function of Jews in England since such records have been kept there. Tovey informs us that the Jews of both York and Stamford were driven from England in 1190, the year of Prince Madoc's second voyage to America with ten ships. That is an interesting coincidence. Might not desperate Jews have decided to try for a new life of freedom in a new land, rather than to settle for the known abuse they would suffer in Christian or Muslim lands? Might they not have financed vessels for a great explorer, who had difficulty financing his early voyages?
Another interesting coincidence is that ancient English records, referred to by Tovey, refer to the Jews as "stinkards." According to Natchez Indian history, recorded by the French in the 1600's, the "White woman" queen of these people always married a "stinkard." Adair gives many details of the Natchez "Jewish" practices.
One of the hardest things for us to imagine is that the Jews were the property of the kings in early England. They were like gold-producing cows,
milked by the kings periodically. Exactly one hundred years after their expulsion from York, they were expelled from all England in 1290, and not officially admitted again until 1649.
By 1290 the Jews who survived the 1190 expulsion in England were financially back on their feet and deep into the royal financial operations of the land, as money managing slaves of the good King Edward, Edward is said to have bade them a fond farewell upon their expulsion in 1290. That year there was no benevolent Prince Madoc to spirit them away to the American continent, on sea lanes long known to the Vikings from whom Madoc's Irish mother was descended.
Tovey does not indicate the destinations of all these latter expelled Jews. All are generally presumed to have been destined for places such as Spain, France, Holland or Africa. He does tell us of the tragic fate of many of the expelled Jews of 1290, however, quoting from Lord Coke:
"The captain and crew of one of the largest ships assigned to deport the Jews conceived a dastardly plot to get rid of all its passengers (a particularly wealthy group of Jews with some extremely valuable luggage (Tovey's parentheses)). Once all the Jews were aboard, the ship duly set sail down the Thames. However, as it was nearing the mouth of the river, at Queenborough, the Captain dropped anchor, leaving the ship to bob about until it was low tide. At last, when the craft was embedded upon the sands, the captain announced he was going to take a stroll and invited his Jewish passengers to accompany him, saying the air would do them good. The Jews, who thought they must be ashore and suspecting nothing, gladly accepted the captain's kind invitation and disembarked in high spirits. They spent many happy hours amusing themselves on the sands, and were enjoying themselves so much that they failed to notice either that the tide had begun to come back in, or that the captain had quietly tiptoed back to the ship. By the time they realized what was happening, and the grave danger they were in, the tide was coming in thick and fast. But it was too late. When they ran back to the ship calling out to be helped back on board, the villainous captain refused, laughing loudly and calling down to them; 'Don't ask me for help, ask your prophet Moses; if he could get your forefathers across the Red Sea, he's bound to be able to help you out of this!' And without another word he left them to the mercy of the waves. Each and every one of them was drowned."
Now that was hard. If Madoc succeeded in saving the Jews of the 1190 expulsion, such did not happen with those driven out in 1290. Greed stimulated a fatal plot against the Jews of that nationwide expulsion. Apparently the drownings described above was part of a much wider plot, the beneficiary of which was the king, to whom all the wealth of the Jews ultimately accrued. Tovey adds:
"Some how or other, the facts of the drownings came to light and the miscreants were tried by the Justices Itinerant in Kent, convicted of murder and hanged. Lord Coke estimated that the number of Jews drowned was 15,060; but Matthew Westminster says it was as much as 16,511."
Would it be meaningful to speak of a watery holocaust? Or does holocaust by identification imply sacrifice by burning? The horror is unspeakable. How can anyone doubt the sufferings of the Jews? But it is easy to understand the denials. It sometimes seems kinder to hide unspeakable ugliness.
Secrets and conspiracies seem to be instinctive in man. Even little children delight in them. They pervade our lives from the highest to the lowest of human institutions and activities. They commingle as the cells in the life blood of The Beast who alienates us from one another. From the ancient mountain-top Druid sacred oak-grove nemetons, over great expanses of time and space, to the ultra-modern cathedrals of capital of Switzerland's most revered high places, with chapels of the cult in all the populated places of the world, the pearls of the wisdom of wealth are protected from the swine of the Earth by rules that exclude the ignorant from all but exploitation.
But ignorance and the arcane are obscenities to God, who has made all knowable by analogy. The microcosm is a reflection of the macrocosm. By gravitation we understand magnetism; by magnetism we deduce the interplay of atoms and molecules, the reflection of the cotillion of the galaxies. But that which God has declared in the heavens is obscured by human foolishness, that has its roots in justifiable fear of spiritual power, which really exists, but is usually found to be counterfeit, of a negative value, in human trade.
Evidence suggests fear and ignorance always tyrannize to control the only real wealth, cheap labor. Gold is only the whip and the goad, in the mobilization of this wealth. Wherever expensive tastes and appetites can be developed, however destructive to the indulger, the panderers to these tastes exchange the desired delight for another pair of hands at their money pump.
The tale is too complex and occult to unravel and then knit up into something simple for the reader. Suffice it to say that religions and religious movements have done much to move the money of the world. The home of the World's financial doctrine coincidentally emanates from the same source as that of Calvinism, the religion of the Huguenots and the doctrine behind the Puritan work ethic; neither of which are manifestly without sociological merit. But to belabor this line of thought may be tiring to readers interested in knowing what this has to do with Indians, and what became of them. It goes back to the very bases of Native American thinking.
The Indian myths of origin and genesis are simple, if not banal, but Uncle Remus has a sinister face in the mind manipulators who were the shamans of the Algonquian, Siouan and Iroquois nations (or linguistic groups) when we first find them in written records. Behind the shaman masks we see faces like those of Cartier, Roberval, and Prince Rupert, who knew no national boundaries, and saw the people of Earth as succulent mussels, needing only proper steaming to prepare them for consumption. After putting Galatin, Morgan, Schoolcraft, Eastman, Pike, and earlier other sources, into perspective regarding such matters, Francis Parkman, the definitive spokesman on the Native American (before the Indian was defined by the Smithsonian Institution as the vanishing American), before 1865 made this assessment of Indian philosophical achievement before contact with Europeans (in The Jesuits In North America, pp. 86-87), after giving the reader supporting particulars:
"It is obvious that the Indian mind has never seriously occupied itself with any of the higher themes of thought. The beings of its belief are not impersonations of the forces of Nature, the courses of human destiny, or the movements of human intellect, will and passion. In the midst of Nature, the Indian knows nothing of her laws. His perpetual reference of her phenomena to occult agencies forestalled inquiry and precluded inductive reasoning. If the wind blew with violence, it was because the water-lizard, which makes the wind, had crawled out of his pool; if the lightning was sharp and frequent, it was because the young of the thunder-bird were restless in their nest; if a blight fell upon the corn, it was because the Corn Spirit was angry; and if the beavers were shy and difficult to catch, it was because they had taken offence at seeing the bones of one of their race thrown to a dog. Well, and even highly developed, in a few instances--I allude especially to the Iroquois,--with respect to certain points of material concernment, the mind of the Indian in other respects was and is almost hopelessly stagnant. The very traits that raise him above the servile races are hostile to the kind and degree of civilization which those races so easily attain. His intractable spirit of independence, and the pride which forbids him to be an imitator, reinforce but too strongly that savage lethargy of mind from which it is so hard to rouse him. No race, perhaps, ever offered greater difficulties to those laboring for its improvement."
Parkman continues his discussion of Indian religion and superstition in a succinct and no more flattering paragraph, with reference to the Native American's "Great Spirit" as a post-Contact phenomenon, which concludes:
"...The primitive Indian, yielding his untutored homage to One All-pervading and Omnipotent Spirit, is a dream of poets, rhetoricians and sentimentalists."
Parkman discounts the early Native American concepts of good and evil spirits contending for controls of human souls, before contact with Europeans. But this is where Parkman stumbled and fell in his failure or unwillingness to appreciate the stoicism of the Native American. This is also where the Native American achieves the philosophical sublime--without the descriptive lexicon to effectively and affectively express the concept of spiritual aliquots empowering the material in a universal war of metaphysical battles, personal and corporate, seen as mysteriously motivated conflicts of powers of opposing spiritual charges. The Native American had the concept, if not the material analogs and subtle philosophical language to express it, while those for whom it was propounded stub their intellectual toes on it, and curse it--and each other, as they fall over it.
The Native American grasps the basic concept of the universal spiritual dialectic, wherein happiness lies in appreciation of potential, not in the exploitation and exhaustion of the resource. But his expression of it is weak, in the presence of its majesty, in the Indian's unlettered discourse. The Native American languages fell into the trap into which modern Icelandic has fallen. This is the ultimate tragedy, still proudly indulged in by many of the world's people, the dream unfulfilled, for want of The Word to bring it to sweetly fruitful life in powerful idioms rich with aeons of etymological accretions, like the English language, and its Indo-European relatives, dating back to the rebirth of civilization in the Indus valley, that are powers in the world in their literature, whatever their spiritual charges, positive or negative, as they impact on people.
For his part, Jennings Wise seems to abuse the English language, and dances a pompous Siouan medicine stomp in his book The Philosophic History Of Civilization, in his rush away from Native American simplicity. In it he purports to put the etymology, chronology and geodesy of human history on an exoterically solid footing for those who swirl with him in the maelstrom of American Indian national identity. His cryptic gesticulations in his gyrations suggests a tie-in between the Welsh and the Siouan people, who were seen by Jefferson as the descendants of the Madocians. The search for the Madocians was an integral part of Jefferson's take-over of French North America, the Louisiana Territory.
Wise ties the Siouan Monacans to the Isle of Mona and, by association, Mount Snowden, Eriri, The Eagle's Nest, of Jefferson's family's ancestral home in Wales. He reaches to draw the Shacories, identified by John Lawson as the Coree, into this vortex, when he alludes to the Shakamaxons. Maybe we need to re-assess the origins of the Lumbee town Maxton.
Wise wanders so widely in his free-association meanderings, it is hard to give much credit to his plays on words. But we know that he is right about the Monacans, the great Siouan people driven from Virginia into North Carolina, and ultimately destroyed in South Carolina, one band at a time. This was done by a coalition of aggressive Iroquoians and desperate Algonquians, under the influence respectively of England and France.
The Iroquois and Algonquins were fatally split by their own awareness of the brutal tragedy they were perpetrating, as they played into the hands of European powers that never wavered in their obliteration of Native American power bases in America, in order to exploit the continent's resources. These power bases were the Native Americans destined to become the "Civilized Nations" of the Iroquois and Creek confederations, ultimately wards of the United States of America on remnants of the lands these nations had won by brutal conquest and in the arbitrarily divided Indian territories of Oklahoma, until their lands were deemed needed by the White man's European power base, that by then effectively controlled most of the world's land areas and the seas, often by the effective application of the social disorganizers rum and opium.
This was the basis of most great "developments" in the world, from the settlement of Mohenjodaro in the ancient Hindu Kush to the Jewish settlement of Israel in this century. It was what made old biblical-style slavery obsolete. It was the basis for the "carpet bagger" economy of the Southeast. It was part of the old "pay 'em off Friday evening, and take it back Saturday night" economic system, that mans the world money pump, and made McDonald Pate the richest man in Green County. Unfortunately, this system meets the perceived needs of a world, that has now compounded the misery of millions on high interest plastic card credit, backed only by the card carrier's claim that he will be able to work again on Monday.
After Gov. Robert Daniel's declaration of war against the Siouan people of North Carolina in 1703, all the Indians of the area knew their destruction was inevitable, unless they were absorbed into the White economy or escaped from it. The war declared was against the "Coree Nation." This was the eastern designation of the people related to the now remnant Catawbas, some of whom found temporary refuge in the swamps of eastern North Carolina, when England turned up the heat on the extermination of the Southeastern Siouan peoples, who had powerful ties to the dominant Siouan people in the heart of the continent. Albert S. Gatschet, in Vol. I, of his Migration Legends Of The Creek Indians (published in 1884), p. 15, gives us a rough sketch of these people, after their expulsion from Virginia:
"The Kataba Indians of North and South Carolina are mentioned here only incidentally, as they do not appear to have had much intercourse with any Maskoki (Muskhogee) tribe. The real extent of this linguistic group is unknown; being in want of any vocabularies besides that of the Kataba river, S.C., and of the Woccons, settled near the coast of N.C., we are not inclined to trust implicitly the statement of Adair, who speaks of a large Kataba confederacy embracing twenty-eight villages "of different nations," on Santee, Combahee, Congaree and other rivers, and speaking dialects of the Kataba language. The Waterees, seen by Lawson, probably belonged to this stock, and the Woccons (who) lived contiguous to the Tuscarora-Iroquois (sic) tribe."
We know, of course, on the authority of John Swanton's Smithsonian Bulletin 145, The Indian Tribes of North America, that the Woccons were in the area of Goldsboro, North Carolina, where my own great x 3 grandmother located her people as Coree Indians. This is studiously ignored by local historians. The only reason I have been able to deduce for this denial of identity is that the Siouan people of the southeastern part of North Carolina were involved with Tory bands that were outlawed after the Revolutionary War. One of the most infamous of these bands was the Barna Jernigan Gang.
What little is known of the Barna Jernigan Gang has been told in an earlier chapter. Relatives of Barna Jernigan were my Coree ancestors. Was Jesse Ammons the last of the Corees? I don't think so. The Corees just assumed the identity that suited them when records of their racial origins were deliberately destroyed in Lenoir County.
When the old Dobbs County records in the Lenoir County Court House were burned, many Corees were magically liberated and transformed, along with a lot of Barna Jernigan's sympathizers. The Lenoir County Court House fire was the last battle of the Revolutionary War for eastern North Carolina. It freed many people, but it left many as slaves, that it would take another, and worse, war to free.
The Catawba and their Siouan associates, as early as 1708, saw their historical end in sight, as they scrambled to unite with the Cherokees and the Creeks, in a futile effort to regain the old buffalo grounds occupied by the French in the Southeast. But we learn from Gatschet that this effort in 1708 was already too late. The Whites and their Iroquoian allies already gripped the rest of the East. The French were already beaten by clever and ruthless Celts, West Stock from the British Isles, whom the French would embrace as adders in their bosoms, in the persons of the conniving traders among the Chicasahs, Shawnees and Creeks, like Nairne, the Hughes brothers, McGillivray and Adair, even though the sting was a while in coming.
The rebels from Britain's West Country had already made their play. From the ball ground to the bed bower; from the trading oak to the treaty stroke, the half-breed traitor had gained control. The Native American was supplanted, over and over again, by civilized savages, who had no compunctions about how they won the game and sometimes showed great finesse in the play. We learn from Gatschet that the Coree were eliminated from the game simply by the deletion of a line in a list of "nations" in Adair's History, but Gatschet attributed no sinister motive to this deletion.
It was easier for Adair to omit the Corees from his manuscript, than to argue about the rightful ownership of his Fairfield plantation at Neooherooka. Who can say how many Indian families Adair displaced in what is now Green County, North Carolina? Not I. But the simple European-style hand tools, that Larry Pait found, that were such a large part of the Neooherooka treasure trove, tells me that N'hooky's people were of the same mindset as the hard-working people who still farm that area; where they have farmed since before anyone can remember or tell from the written records, every generation trying to give to their children as good as the land gave them.
What have I proved in all of this? Maybe a better question is, what is the argument? It is hard (for me) to argue that the conflicts are not spiritual. Even so, now we know. The Coree-Indian is not extinct. He still lives, in us. Whether Red, White or Black, if your people have been here in America's Southeast 300 years, or so, you and I are he and she.
I have Marr and Cummings family lines, so I have some sense of involvement with the Cherokees, but my orientation is not Indian. The Cherokee culture is well-documented. Their story is a Smoky Mountain rhododendron canebrake wherein I'm lost, when I wander there. I refer you to firstname.lastname@example.org, or email@example.com for information about Welsh words (or Jewish?) in the Cherokee language, since they have the language skills to provide you something of value.
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