1[James Mooney, The Ghost Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890. p. 824.]

2[Wilcomb E. Washburn. The American Indian and the United States. Vol. III, pp. 2517, 2523, 2524.]

3[Jarome A. Greene. "The Sioux Land Commission of 1889: A Prelude to Wounded Knee." South Dakota History. No. 1, Winter 1970, pp. 41-72.]

4[Mooney. p. 826.]

5[James A. Ruffner, Climates of the States. Vol. 2. pp. 899, 904. Gives the average annual rainfall in this region as 16.5 inches.
John P. Finley, Certain Climatic Features of the Two Dakotas. Examination of rainfall data from various locations in and around the Lakota reservations indicate the drought began in 1886 and did not end until the mid 1890s. Note data for some locations is erratic not being reported in some months or years. Down as much as 40%.]

6[Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indians Affairs, (Hereafter called CIA)1891. Vol. 1 pp.132-35.]

7[ARSW, 1891. pp. 133-39]

8[Secretary of the Interior John Noble to CIA. December 6, 1890. Contained in Reports and Correspondence Relating to the Army Investigation of the Battle of Wounded Knee and to the Sioux Campaign of 1890-91. National Archives and Record Administration. Microfilm publication number M-983. (Hereafter called M-983.)]

9[Miles to Schofield, December 19,1890. M-983.]

10[Telegram from Brig. General Thomas H. Ruger to AGO December, 1890 M-983.]

11[Captain Joseph H. Hurst. Quoted in Mooney p. 837.]

12[Mooney, pp.819-21.]



15[Raymond J. DeMallie. "The Lakota Ghost Dance: An Ethnohistorical Account." Pacific Historical Review. Vol.51. No. 4. 1982 p. 388.]

16[Mooney pp.819-24.]

17[George W. Hyde. A Sioux Chronicle. p. 254.]

18[CIA to Royer October 3, 1890. M-983]

19[Royer to CIA October 12, 1890. M-983]

20[Charles Eastman. From the Deep Woods to Civilization. pp. 93-5.]

21[Palmer to CIA November 10, 1890, Royer to CIA November 12, 1890.]

22[Mooney. p. 848.]

23[Dr. V. T. McGillycuddy Quoted in Mooney p. 832. R.O. Pugh Quoted in Eli S. Ricker Collection MS-8. Nebraska State Historical Society. (Here after called Ricker.)]

24[Pugh in Ricker]

25[State of California, Board of Medical Examiners to Bob Lee October 27, 1953.]

26[CIA, to Agents at Pine Ridge, Rosebud, Standing Rock, Cheyenne River, and Crow Creek Reservations. November 20, 1890. M-983.]

27[Agents Reynolds, McLaughlin, Dixon, to CIA. November 21, 1890. Agent Palmer to CIA November 24, 1890. M-983.]

28[Royer to CIA November 26, 1890. M-983.]

29[Royer to CIA November 27, 1890. M-983.]

30[V.T. McGillycuddy quoted in Mooney. p. 831.]

31[Walter M. Camp papers, Lilly Library. University of Indiana (Hereafter called Camp).]

32[McLaughlin to Commissioner of Indian Affairs. November 15, 1890 McLaughlin Papers, MF 2. South Dakota State Historical Society.]

33[Oliver Knight. Following the Indian Wars: The Story of the newspaper Correspondents Among the Indian Campaigners. p. 311.]

34[Elmo Scott Watson. "The Last Indian War, 1890-91- A Study of Newspaper Jingoism." Journalism Quarterly. Volume XX, September 1943. p. 206.]

35[Knight p. 313.]

36[Watson. p. 201.]

37[Knight. p. 314, Watson. p. 212.]


39[Annual Report CIA. 1891. Vol 1 p.132-35]

40[Miles to Brooke, November 18,1890. M-983]

41[Rapid City Daily Journal. December 10, 1890 p. 1 and December 11, 1890 p. 1.]

42[Morgan quoted in Mooney p. 852.]

43[Lt. Col A. T. Smith to AGO November 26, 1890. M-983 This number is unrealisticly high, See Jerry Green, After Wounded Knee: Correspondence of Major and Surgeon John Vance Laduerdale While Serving with the Army Occupying the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation 1890-1891.]

44[ George W. Baird. "General Miles' Indian Campaigns." Century Magazine. Vol. 42. July 1891. pp. 351-370]

45[ Virginia W. Johnson. The Unregimented General: a Biography of Nelson A. Miles. p. 282. Secretary of War Report 1891 p. 134-140.]

46[ARSW, 1891, p.147-8.]


48[Miles to AGO December 27, 1890 and January 1, 1891. M-983]

49[Mooney p.862.]

50[ Stanley Vestal. Sitting Bull Champion of the Sioux. pp. 271-272. Robert Utley The Lance and the Shield: The Life and Times of Sitting Bull. p. 285.]

51[Dewey Beard quoted in Ricker.]

52[Beard quoted in Ricker, and Andrew Good Thunder quoted in Camp]

53[Beard and Horn Cloud quoted in Ricker, and Good Thunder quoted in Camp.]

54[Mead County South Dakota settlers to CIA September 26, 1890. M-983.]

56[Beard and Horn Cloud quoted in Ricker, and Good Thunder quoted in Camp.]

57[These figures were complied from the Returns From Regiments, for the 7th U.S. Cavalry and the 1st U.S. Artillery. December 1890. M-744 Record Group 94 National Archives and Record Administration. These figures do not include teamsters, traders, ambulance drivers, or reporters who are known to have been present. Had these men been included the number of armed white men would well exceed 500.]

58[Colonel James Forsyth's Official Report. M-983.]

59[Miles to AGO November 18, 1891. Miles Papers United States Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks.]

60[Edward M. Coffman, The Old Army: A Portrait of the American Army in Peacetime, 17841898 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 329-30. William J. Ghent, "The Seventh Regiment of United States Cavalry," manuscript in the Walter M. Camp Collection, Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, concluded that approximately ten percent of the men at Wounded Knee had ever been under fire.]

61["Register of Enlistments in the U.S. Army, 1798-1914," Microfilm Publication No. 233, National Archives, Washington (hereafter cited as Microfilm Pub. No. 233). For biographical information on another foreignborn winner of the Medal of Honer, see Christer Lindberg, "Foreigners in Action at Wounded Knee," Nebraska History 71 (Winter 1990): 170-81.]

62[Mooney, pp. 869-71.]

63[Since surviving records do not always give sex and age, the totals are only approximate. Richard E. Jensen, "Big Foot's's Followers at Wounded Knee," Nebraska History.71 (Winter 1990): 194-212. Colonel Forsyth put the number of armed "warriors" at 106. Army and Navy Journal, January 24, 1891. However, the number of Indian men actually armed at the time of the first shots were far fewer. One eyewitness gave the number of armed Lakotas as equivalent to the Indian force at the 1882 fight at Big Dry Wash, or Chevelon's Forks, Arizona. There the army faced forty-two armed Apaches. Charles B. Ewing, "The Wounded of the Wounded Knee Battle Field, with Remarks on Wounds Produced by Large and Small Caliber Bullets," The Transactions of the Second Annual Meeting of the Association of Military Surgeons of the National Guard of the United States.(St. Louis: Becktold & Co., 1892):49; George H. Morgan, "The Fight at the Big Dry Wash in the Mogollon Mountains, Arizona, July 17, 1882, with Renegade Apache Scouts from the San Carlos Indian Reservation," John M. Carroll, ed., The Papers of the Order of Indian Wars.(Fort Collins: The Old Army Press, 1975), 253.]

64[ Nelson A. Miles to George W. Baird, November 20, 1891, Baird Collection, WA-S901, M596, Western Americana Collection, The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.]

65[Charles B. Ewing testimony, M-983.]

66[Lt. Alexander R. Piper, "Extracts from Letters Written by Lieutenant Alexander R. Piper...during the Sioux Campaign, 1890-1891," in John M. Carroll, editor, The Unpublished Papers of the Order of Indian Wars Book Number 10 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Privately published, 1977), 5; the original account is found in the United States Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.]

67[Edward S. Godfrey, "Cavalry Fire Discipline," Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States 19 (1896): 259. Godfrey received a Medal of Honor on November 27, 1894, for action against the Nez Perce at Bear Paw Mountain on September 30, 1877.]

68[Lt. John C. Gresham, "The Story of Wounded Knee." Harpers Weekly. 35, February 7, 1891.]

69[Capt. and Assistant Surgeon Francis J. Ives. Personal diary detailing the wounded Lakota he treated at Pine Ridge December 1890-January 1891. Robinson Museum South Dakota Historical Society H-84.38.]

70[Miles to Baird, November 20, 1891, Baird Collection. This is repeated by Dr. John V. Lauderdale to "Joe," his wife, February 19, 1891, Lauderdale Collection, WAS1317, Western Americana Collection, The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; Peter R. DeMontravel, "General Nelson A. Miles and the Wounded Knee Controversy," Arizona and the West. 28 (Spring 1986): 23-44.]

71[General Order No. 100, December 17, 1891, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Record Group (RG) 94.] This study has been confined to the Wounded Knee medals. More came as a result of later skirmishes.]

72[Charles W. Allen, "In the West That Was: Memoirs, Sketches, and Legends," Allen Collection, MS2635, Nebraska State Historical Society. Allen, a reporter for the Chadron (Nebraska) Democrat, wrote, "Fighting continued for half an hour, and then continued in skirmish for another hour." Richard C. Stirk, a civilian eyewitness in an interview with Eli S. Ricker, Ricker Collection, MS8, Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln, stated, "the main firing...did not last ten minutes." Brig. Gen. E. D. Scott, "Wounded Knee: A Look at the Record," Field Artillery Journal. 24 (January-February 1939): 16, put the time frame at ten minutes.]

73[Brian C. Pohanka, Nelson A. Miles: A Documentary Biography of His Military Career, 1861-1903. (Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1985), 100, 1078. The number of medals awarded at these engagements were compiled from the lists in Medal of Honor, 1863-1968, 90th Congress, 2d session, Subcommittee on Veterans' Affairs, Committee on Labor and Public Welfare (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1968).]

74[Col. James A. Forsyth to the Adjutant General (AG), February 14 and March 5, 1891. Most correspondence, applications, and citations relating to the Medal of Honor came from two groups of records. For the officers, information on their Medals of Honor was found in their Appointments, Commissions, and Personal (ACP) files, originally kept by the Adjutant General's Office and found at the National Archives. For the enlisted men, documentation came from their Medal of Honor files, which consists of gathered together letters received by the Adjutant General's Office, RG 94, National Archives, Washington.]

75[Miles to AG, October 13, 1891.]

76[Application for Medal of Honor, September 6, 1892, Harry L. Hawthorne ACP file, #3881-1884.]

77[Col. John Van R. Hoff interview with Camp, October 13, 1912.]

78[Capt. Allyn Capron to Forsyth, January 7, 1891, Hawthorne ACP file.]

79[Hawthorne ACP file.]

80[Hawthorne to AG, April 14, 1894, with enclosures, Hawthorne ACP file.]

81[John C. Gresham ACP file, #5087-1878; Microfilm Pub. No. 744; Mooney, pp. 871-2, also fails to mention Gresham as among the wounded.]

82[Ghent, "The Seventh Regiment of United States Cavalry;" another version of this essay repeats this statement. Major E. A. Garlington, "The Seventh Regiment of Cavalry," Theo. F. Rodenbough and William L. Haskin, The Army of the United States (New York: Maynard, Merrill, & Co., 1896), 265.]

83[Miles to AG, Oct. 13, 1891, with enclosures.]

84[Capt. Charles A. Varnum to AG, Feb. 14, 1891, Gresham ACP file. Captain Varnum was awarded a Medal of Honor in 1897 for his part in a clash with the Lakota on White Clay Creek the day after Wounded Knee.]

85[AG to Charles M. Froshlich, July 27, 1915; AG to Gresham, September 25, 1915, Gresham ACP file.]

86[Report of Sick and Wounded, Fort Huachuca, Arizona, February 1914, Gresham ACP file.]

87[Application for Medal of Honor, March 18, 1893. Ernest A. Garlington ACP file, #55574-1877.]

88[The specific letters of recommendation found in the Medal of Honor files are: 1st Lt. Horation G. Sickels and 2nd Lt. Sedgwick Rice to AG, May 13, 1891 (recommending Austin); Hawthorne to AG, January 7, 1891 (for Clancy); Capt. Charles S. Ilsley to AG, May 13, 1891 (for Feaster); Capt. Winfield S. Edgerly to AG, April 1, 1891 (for Hamilton); Capron to AG, February 25, 1891 (for Weinert and Hartzog); Varnum to AG, March 25, 1891 (for Hillock and Ward); Capt. Miles Moylan to AG, March 28, 1891 (for Hobday); 1st Lt. Loyd S. McCormick to AG, March 23, 1891 (for Jetter); Capt. Henry J. Nowlan to AG, March 5, 1891 (for Loyd); Sickels to AG, May 13, 1891 (for McMillan); Moylan to AG, March 28, 1891 (for Neder); Sickels and Rice to AG, May 13, 1891 (for Sullivan); Edgerly to AG, March 18, 1891 (for Toy); Nowlan to AG, March 5, 1891 (for Trautman); Rice to AG, April 18, 1891 (for Ziegner).]

89[Miles to AGO in Annual Report of the Major General Commanding the Army, November 10, 1896.]

90[Elton Howard, "Remember Custer!." True West.16. #5 May June 1959.]

91[Hawthorne to Capron, May 23, 1891, which is found in the Clancy file.]

92[General Orders No. 28, March 12, 1903, War Department.]

93[The affidavits of William G. Austin, Albert W. McMillan, and Thomas Sullivan were attached to Feaster's file.]

94[General Order Number 135 September 3, 1898, Secretary of War.]

95[List of killed and wounded, Nelson A. Miles Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC; also, New York Times, January 1, 1891. Miles's papers list Hillock as wounded in action on December 30, 1890, at Drexel Mission a few miles north of the Pine Ridge Agency. Hillock was not on the list published in the Army and Navy Journal, January 10, 1891, or in Miles to AG, Jan. 3, 1891, M-983.]

96[Regimental returns from the Seventh Cavalry, Fort Riley, Kansas, January 18, 1893, Microfilm Pub. No. 744.]

97[Nowlan to AG, March 5, 1891.]

98[Edgerly to AG, April 1, 1891.]

99[Sickels to AG, May 13, 1891.]

100[Microfilm Pub. No 233; Microfilm Pub. No. 744.]

101[Sickels to AG, March 26, 1891.]

102[Moylan to AG, March 28, 1891. Captain Moylan was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1894 for gallantry at the 1877 Battle of Bear Paw Mountain.]

103[Edgerly to AG, March 18, 1891; Harper's Weekly, September 19, 1891, mistakenly calls him "Foy."]

104[Nowlan to AG, March 5, 1891.]

105[McCormick to AG, March 23, 1891.]

106[Moylan to Adjutant, Seventh Cavalry, Fort Riley, Kansas, March 28, 1891. Hobday's citation could not be located.]

107[Varnum to AG, March 25, 1891.]

108[Medal of Honor, 18631968, 332.]

109[Capron to AG, February 25, 1891.]

110[W. F. Beyer and O. F. Keydel, eds., Deeds of Valor, Vol. 2 (Detroit: Perrien-Keydel Co., 1907), 325.]

111[Peter McFarland interview, Ricker Collection; Maj. L. S. McCormick, "Wounded Knee and the Drexel Mission Fights," By Valor & Arms, the Journal of American Military History 1 (January 1975): 11; Allen, "In the West That Was," Allen Collection.]

112[Dexter W. Fellows and Andrew A. Freeman, This Way to the Big Show: The Life of Dexter Fellows (New York: The Viking Press, 1936), 79-80.]

113[Capron to AG, February 25, 1891. All four men were recommended on the same citation.]

114[General Order No. 100, December 17, 1891.]

115[Robert Wooster, Nelson A. Miles and the Twilight of the Frontier Army (Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 1993), 197-8.]

116[U.S. Congress. Senate. General Staff Corps and Medals of Honor. 66th Cong. 1st sess. S. Doc. 58:112.]

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